Longest Bridge In The World

Danyang Kunshan Grand Bridge, East China 

The bridge is located on the rail line between Shanghai and Nanjing in East China’s Jiangsu province. It is in the Yangtze River Delta where the geography is characterized by lowland rice paddies, canals, rivers, and lakes. The bridge runs roughly parallel to the Yangtze River, about 8 to 80 km south of the river. It passes through the northern edges of population centers (from west to east) beginning in Danyang, Changzhou, Wuxi, Suzhou, and ending in Kunshan. There is a 9 kilometer  long (5.6 mi) section over open water across Yangcheng Lake in Suzhou.

It was completed in 2010 and opened in 2011. Employing 10,000 people, construction took four years and cost about $8.5 billion.The Danyang Kunshan Grand Bridge currently holds the Guinness World Record for the longest bridge in the world in any category as of June 2011.


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land measurement edit
Measurement of Land in Nepal

1 Bigha (बिघा) = 20 Kattha (कठ्ठा)
1 Bigha (बिघा) = 6772.63 m²
1 Bigha (बिघा) = 72900 sq.ft.
1 Bigha (बिघा) = 13.31 Ropani
1 Kattha (कठ्ठा) = 20 Dhur (धुर)
1 Kattha (कठ्ठा) = 338.63 m²
1 Kattha (कठ्ठा) = 3645 sq.ft.
1 Dhur (धुर) = 16.93 m²
1 Dhur (धुर) = 182.25 sq.ft.
1 Ropani (रोपनी)= 16 aana (आना)
1 Ropani (रोपनी)= 64 Paisa (पैसा)
1 Ropani (रोपनी)= 508.72 m²
1 Ropani (रोपनी)= 5476 sq.ft.
1 Ropani (रोपनी)= 256 Daam (दाम)
1 Ropani = 4 Matomuri
1 Khetmuri = 25 Ropani
1 Aana (आना)= 4 Paisa (पैसा)
1 Aana (आना)= 31.80 m²
1 Aana (आना) = 342.25 sq. ft.
1 Aana (आना) = 16 Daam (दाम)
1 Paisa (पैसा) = 4 Daam (दाम)
1 Paisa (पैसा) = 7.95 m²
1 Paisa (पैसा) = 85.56 sq. ft.
1 Daam (दाम) = 1.99 m²
1 Daam (दाम) = 21.39 sq. ft.
1 Haath = 1.5 ft.

Prefabricated Housing in Nepal

Prefabricated Housing

The word ‘prefab’ is not an industry term like modular home, manufactured home, panelized home or site-built home. The term is an amalgamation of panelized and modular building systems, and can mean either one. In today’s usage the term ‘prefab’ is more closely related to the style of home, usually modernist, rather than to a particular method of home construction.

Prefabricated homes, often referred to as prefab homes or simply prefabs, are specialist dwelling types of prefabricated building, which are manufactured off-site in advance, usually in standard sections that can be easily shipped and assembled. Some current prefab home designs include architectural details inspired by postmodernism or futurist architecture.

Prefabricated Housing in Nepal

The Structure of Prefab House Nepal are engineering wise best modeled and designed. The Prefab house and school are with strong metal frame and can make easy home in community and rural areas. it is the best housing structure for nepal. it is most Reliable Structure and Easy &  Quick Assembly & Dismantling housing system for nepal.

9’ x 9’ room                      Rs 250,000/-

9’ X 14’ room                   Rs 375,000/-

14’x 14’ room                  Rs 490,000/-

15’ x18’ room                  Rs  600,000/-

Breakdown of Home Structure

Structure   Metal  : 2”by 2” powder coating metal pipe pillar standard quality framework and beam and nut-bolt system

Roof                    : 0.38 mm ( 26 gaze zinc sheet) Aluminium truss ( Optional UPVC ,tile etc)

Wall Partition   : Cement board/ Aluminium Framing or Wood ply framing.(optional to thermocoal use/brick & other material )

Door and Window:   (Aluminium )

Ceiling:   Wood ply or Cement board (According to your requirement)

Floor: Smooth Cement tile

Electrification: City Line Complete installation ( Rs 3000-7000 /room)

Solar Line per home (  Rs 25000-50,000)

Sanitation: (6” by 8” size toile )                              Rs 50,000-95000/-

Landscaping and Civil Construction: Self

Here is the cost estimate of House that can be fabricated in Nepal.

Modern bangalows exterior designs views. (4)
5 Types of Houses

1. Mansion Houses

A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio “dwelling”, an abstract noun derived from the verb manere “to dwell”. The English word “manse” originally defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way. ‘Manor’ comes from the same root territorial holdings granted to a lord who would remain there hence it is easy to see how the word ‘Mansion’ came to have its meaning.


2. Bungalow Houses

A bungalow is a type of building, originally from Bengal region in India, but now found throughout the world. Across the world, the meaning of the word bungalow varies. Common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow was popular after the First World War. In North America and the United Kingdom a bungalow today is a residential building, normally detached, which is either single-story or has a second story built into a sloping roof, usually with dormer windows and one and a half stories.

3. Apartment Houses

An apartment or a flat  is a self-contained housing unit  that occupies only part of a building, correctly, on a single level without a stair. Such a building may be called an apartment building, apartment complex, apartment house, Flat complex, block of flats, tower block, high-rise or, occasionally mansion block, especially if it consists of many apartments for rent. In Scotland it is called a block of flats or, if it’s a traditional sandstone building, a tenement, which has a pejorative connotation elsewhere. Apartments may be owned by an owner/occupier, by leasehold tenure or rented by tenants.


4. Cottage Houses

A cottage is, typically, a small house. It may carry the connotation of being an old or old-fashioned building. In modern usage, a cottage is usually a modest, often cosy dwelling, typically in a rural or semi-rural location.


5. Dogtrot Houses

The dogtrot, also known as a breezeway house, dog-run, or possum-trot, is a style of house that was common throughout the Southeastern United States during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some theories place its origins in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Some scholars believe the style developed in the post-Revolution frontiers of Kentucky and Tennessee. Others note its presence in the low country of the Carolinas from an early period. The main style point was a large breezeway through the center of the house to cool occupants in the hot southern climate.


Windows and Doors Designs


A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light and, if not closed or sealed, air and sound.Modern windows are usually glazed or covered in some other transparent or translucent material. Windows are held in place by frames. Many glazed windows may be opened, to allow ventilation, or closed, to exclude inclement weather. Windows often have a latch or similar mechanism to lock the window shut. some of the windows are shown below;















A door is a moving structure used to block off, and allow access to, an entrance to or within an enclosed space, such as a building or vehicle. Doors normally consist of a panel that swings on hinges on the edge, but there are also doors that slide or spin inside of a space. Similar exterior structures to doors are called gates. some of the Doors are shown below;













Major Step To Build Modern House

1. Foundation

When beginning a construction project, it is important to take great care in properly setting up the foundation. The success of the project, whether it is a large house or small tool shed, relies heavily on the care and effort that has been put into the site preparation and layout. While the techniques described in this article can be employed to some extent on any scale project, they are tailored to the small to mid scale home project.

2. Framing house 

Framing, is the fitting together of pieces to give a structure support and shape. Framing materials are usually wood, engineered wood, or structural steel. Building framing is divided into two broad categories, heavy-frame construction (heavy framing) if the vertical supports are few and heavy such as in timber framing, pole building framing, or steel framing or many and smaller called light frame construction  including balloon, platform and light steel framing.

  • light frame

  • light steel framing


Wall framing in house construction includes the vertical and horizontal members of exterior walls and interior partitions, both of bearing walls and non-bearing walls. These stick members, referred to as studs, wall plates and lintels , serve as a nailing base for all covering material and support the upper floor platforms, which provide the lateral strength along a wall.

3. Roof

A roof is part of a building envelope. It is the covering on the uppermost part of a building or shelter which provides protection from animals and weather, notably rain or snow, but also heat, wind and sunlight. The word also denotes the framing or structure which supports that covering.

4. Installation of Rough Plumbing Electrical and HVAC

rough plumbing: Once the shell is finished, siding and roofing can be installed. At the same time, the electrical and plumbing contractors start running pipes and wires through the interior walls, ceilings and floors. Sewer lines and vents, as well as water supply lines for each fixture, are installed. Bathtubs and one-piece shower/tub units are put in place at this point because there’s more room to maneuver large, heavy objects.

electrical: After the roofing goes on, the house is considered “dried in.” The electrician then installs receptacles for outlets, lights and switches and runs wires from the breaker panel to each receptacle. Wiring for telephones, cable TV and music systems is included in this work.

HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning): Ductwork is installed for the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and possibly the furnace. HVAC vent pipes are installed through the roof, and insulation is installed in the floors, walls and ceilings.

5.Complete  Drywall And Interior Textures And Start Exterior Finishes

Drywall is hung and taped so the seams between the boards aren’t visible, and drywall texturing is completed. The primer coat of paint is also applied after taping is complete. Contractors begin installing exterior finishes such as brick, stucco, stone and siding.

5. Finish Interior Trim And Install Exterior Driveways

Interior doors, baseboards, door casings, window sills, moldings, stair balusters and other decorative trim are installed, along with cabinets, vanities and fireplace mantels and surrounds. Walls get a finish coat of paint and are wallpapered where applicable.

Generally, exterior driveways, walkways and patios are formed at this stage. Many builders prefer to wait until the end of the project before pouring the driveway because heavy equipment  can damage concrete. But some builders pour the driveway as soon as the foundation is completed so that when homeowners visit the construction site, they won’t get their shoes muddy.

7. Finish mechanical trims and install bathroom fixtures

Light fixtures, outlets and switches are installed and the electrical panel is completed. HVAC equipment is installed and registers completed. Sinks, toilets and faucets are put in place.   Mirrors, shower doors and carpeting are installed, and final cleanup takes place. Trees, shrubs and grass are planted and other exterior landscaping completed. Finally home Is Ready.




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Top 10 Largest Hydroelectric Power Stations

1.Three Gorges Dam :

The Three Gorges Dam is a hydroelectric dam that spans the Yangtze River by the town of Sandouping, located in Yiling District, Yichang, Hubei province, China. The Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest power station in terms of installed capacity 22,500 MW. Except for a ship lift, the dam project was completed and fully functional as of July 4, 2012, when the last of the main water turbines in the underground plant began production. The ship lift was complete in December 2015. Each main water turbine has a capacity of 700 MW. The dam body was completed in 2006. Coupling the dam’s 32 main turbines with two smaller generators 50 MW each to power the plant itself, the total electric generating capacity of the dam is 22,500 MW.

Location: Sandouping, Yiling, Hubei, China
Purpose: Power, flood control, navigation
Status: Operational
Construction: begin December 14, 1994
Opening date: 2003
Construction cost:  ¥180 billion (US$27.6 billion)
Owner: China Yangtze Power

2. Itaipu Dam

The Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Parana  River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The name “Itaipu” was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. In the Guarani language, Itaipu means “the sounding stone”. It is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the Parana River on the border section between the two countries, 15 km  north of the Friendship Bridge. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu, in Brazil, and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, in the south to Guaíra and Salto del Guaira in the north. The installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW, with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 metres . In 2013 the plant generated a record 98.6 TWH, supplying approximately 75% of the electricity consumed by Paraguay and 17% of that consumed by Brazil.

Location: Foz do Iguacu Hernandarias, Brazil, Paraguay
Status: Operational
Construction: begin January 1975
Opening date: 5 May 1984
Construction cost: US$19.6 billion
Owner: Itaipu Binacional

3. Xiluodu Dam

The Xiluodu Dam is an arch dam on the Jinsha River, i.e. the upper course of the Yangtze in China. It is located near the town of Xiluodu in Yongshan County of Yunnan Province but the dam straddles into Leibo County of Sichuan Province on the opposite side of the river. The primary purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power generation and its power station has an installed capacity of 13,860 MW. Additionally, the dam provides for flood control, silt control and its regulated water releases are intended to improve navigation downstream. Construction on the dam and power station began in 2005 and the first generator was commissioned in 2013, the last in 2014. It is operated by China Yangtze Power and is currently the third-largest power station with the fourth-tallest dam in the world.

Location: Xiluodu Town, China
Construction: begin December 2005
Opening date: July 2013
Construction cost: US$6.2 billion

Operator: China Yangtze Power

4. Guri Dam

The Guri Dam is a concrete gravity and embankment dam in Bolivar State, Venezuela on the Caroni River built from 1963 to 1969. It is 7,426 metres long and 162 m high. It impounds the large Guri Reservoir with a surface area of 4,250 square kilometres 1,641 sq mi. The power station had a combined installed capacity of 1750 megawatts.

Location: Necuima Canyon Bolivar, Venezuela
Status: In us
Construction: begin 1963
Opening date: 1978
Owner: CVG Electrificación del Caroní, C.A.

5. Tucurui Dam

The Tucurui Dam is a concrete gravity dam on the Tocantins River located on the Tucurui County in the State of Para, Brazil. The main purpose of the dam is hydroelectric power production and navigation. It is the first large-scale hydroelectric project in the Brazilian Amazon rain forest. The installed capacity of the 25-unit plant is 8,370 megawatts . Phase I construction begin in 1975 and ended in 1984 while Phase II begin in 1998 and ended in late 2010. The dam was featured in the 1985 film The Emerald Forest.

Location: Tucurui, Para, Brazil
Construction: begin 1975
Opening date: 1984
Construction cost: $5.5 billion, $7.5 with accrued interest
Operator:  Eletronorte

6. Grand Coulee Dam

Grand Coulee Dam is a gravity dam on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, built to produce hydroelectric power and provide irrigation water. It was constructed between 1933 and 1942, originally with two power plants. A third power station was completed in 1974 to increase its energy production. It is the largest electric power-producing facility in the United States. dam now supplies four power stations with an installed capacity of 6,809 MW.

Location: Grant / Okanogan counties, near Coulee Dam and Grand Coulee, Washington
Status: Operational
Construction: begin July 16, 1933
Opening date: June 1, 1942
Construction cost: Original dam: $168 million
Third Powerplant: $730 million
Operator: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation

7. Xiangjiaba Dam

The Xiangjiaba Dam is a large gravity dam on the Jinsha River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in Yunnan Province and Sichuan Province, southwest China. The facility has eight Francis turbines, four with a capacity of 412 MW and four rated at 800 MW, totalling an installed capacity of 6,448 MW. Xiangjiaba Dam is China’s third-biggest hydropower station following Three Gorges Dam and Xiluodu Dam. Construction started on November 26, 2006, and its first generator was commissioned in October 2012.The last generator was commissioned on July 9, 2014.

Location: Yunnan, China
Status: Operational
Construction: begin November 26, 2006
Opening date: 2012

8. Longtan Dam

Longtan Dam is a large roller-compacted concrete  gravity dam on the Hongshui River in Tian’e County of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, a tributary of the Xi River and the Pearl River. The dam is 216.2 m  high and 849 m  long; it is the tallest of its type in the world. The dam is intended for hydroelectric power production, flood control and navigation. The dam contains seven surface spillways, two bottom outlets and an underground power station.

Location: Tian’e County, Guangxi, China
Status: In use
Construction: begin 2001
Opening date: 2009
Construction cost: US$4.2 billion
Owner: Longtan Hydropower Development Co., Ltd.

9. Sayano–Shushenskaya Dam

The Sayano–Shushenskaya Dam is located on the Yenisei River, near Sayanogorsk in Khakassia, Russia. It is the largest power plant in Russia and the 9th-largest hydroelectric plant in the world, by average power generation. The full legal name of the power plant, OJSC (Open Joint-Stock Society) P. S. Neporozhny Sayano-Shushenskaya hydro power plant, refers to the Soviet-time Minister of Energy and Electrification Pyotr Neporozhny. The head of the power plant is Valery Kyari. The total installed capacity of the plant is 6,400 MW; its average annual production is 23.5 TWh, which peaked in 2006 at 26.8 TWh.

Location: Sayanogorsk, Khakassia, Russia
Construction: begin 1963
Opening date: 1978-1985
Operator: RusHydro

10. Krasnoyarsk Dam

The Krasnoyarsk Dam is a 124-metre  high concrete gravity dam located on the Yenisey River about 30 kilometres  upstream from Krasnoyarsk in Divnogorsk, Russia. It was constructed from 1956 to 1972 and supplies 6,000 MW of power, mostly used to supply the Krasnoyarsky Aluminievyy Zavod, Krasnoyarsk Aluminum Plant. Both power and aluminum plants are controlled by the RUSAL company.

Location: Divnogorsk, Russia
Construction: begin 1956
Opening date: 1972